International Joint Usage/Research Center Seminar
"Regulation of oxidative stress and its role in bacterial-induced gastrointestinal DNA damage"
Seminar Date and Time: 02/14/2020 (Fri) 16:00 ~ 16:50
Venue: Medical Science Museum
Speaker (Name): Peter B. Ernst, DVM, PhD
Affiliation, Title: University of California, San Diego, Professor
Subject: Regulation of oxidative stress and its role in bacterial-induced gastrointestinal DNA damage
Abstract: Several bacterial infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers. These microbes can activate the production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes or epithelial cells. Chronic exposure to bacterial-induced inflammation and oxidative stress is associated with an increase in DNA damage, mutations and cancer. Homeostatic responses to limit oxidative stress include the production of adenosine which can directly inhibit the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Further, host cells produce enzymes, such as apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) which regulates many responses to oxidative damage including the repair of DNA damage. Mice deficient in APE1 have increased DNA damage in the gastrointestinal epithelium and much of this is induced by the resident microbes in the digestive tract. Microbiome editing provides an opportunity to decrease the negative impact of some genotoxic bacteria that may protect the host from future DNA damage, mutations and malignant transformation.
Organizer (Host Researcher): Kohtaro Fujihashi